Essay on inborn errors of metabolism

Pediatric Endocrinology and Inborn Errors of Metabolism. This mutation is only seen in a minority of Mediterranean patients and it has never been observed in Japan. Palpation of the muscles reveals them to be firm, and muscle stretch reflexes are suppressed.

When an individual inherits two defective copies of the gene, the manifestations of the disease can be much more severe. In addition to enzymes, defective proteins with other functions may also be considered as candidates for inborn errors of metabolism.

Individuals with such alterations may live long lives but will occasionally experience a range of problems associated with their conditions. A few of these conditions occur at relatively high frequency in humans. Many ethical issues are raised when gene therapy trials are proposed.

Because of the liver problems present in most of these diseases, one must always consider other storage diseases such as the mucopolysaccharidoses, mucolipidoses, sphingomyelinoses, cerebrosidoses, and gangliosidoses in the differential diagnosis.

Early Observations InSir Archibald Garrod, a British physician, presented a classic paper in which he summarized his observations and analyses of a condition known as alkaptonuria. Other symptoms that occur later in life include pigmentation of the connective tissue, spine and joint deterioration, coronary artery calcifications, and cardiac valve deterioration.

Disorders of energy production, utilization: Many of the inborn errors are rare, with frequencies less than 1 inBlood tests for jaundice yellowing or other evidence of liver disease: For cases in which the genetic defect is known, DNA can often be used for the purpose of genetic testing.

Ultimately, hepatomegaly appears, and the tongue may be enlarged and protrude awkwardly.

Knowledge of the most common mutation in a specific ethnic group allows the use of molecular genetics analysis in the blood for diagnostic purposes, thus avoiding the need for a muscle biopsy. Patients often have recurrent stomatitis frequent infections and may have isolated chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

A generally accepted definition of an inborn error of metabolism is any condition with actual or potential health consequences that can be inherited in the fashion described by Gregor Mendel in the nineteenth century. Alterations in the structure or nucleotide composition of DNA can have various consequences for the structure of the protein coded for by the DNA.

Despite any of these interventions, the prognosis is guarded for patients with all of the glycogenoses.

In such patients, the gastrocnemius and deltoid muscles are firm and rubbery on palpation. For example, PKU was originally thought to be caused by mutations at the human phenylalanine hydroxylase locus PAH but was subsequently found to arise from different genetic defects eg, tetrahydrobiopterin homeostasis and to be influenced by dietary protein intake.

Genetic Basis of Inborn Errors The cause of these defects in enzymes and proteins has been traced to mutations in the genes that code for them. Spontaneous movement declines, the cry becomes weak and struggling, and swallowing is dysfunctional.

Preoperative intravenous hyperalimentation appears to eliminate some of the metabolic problems that occur following surgery. EVALUATION These diagnoses can usually be made by performing assays of enzymatic activity in the particular tissue most affected, such as the liver, peripheral white blood cells, muscle, and even brain.

These patients are hypotonic and have a protuberant abdomen. International experts discuss the genetic and molecular dimensions of their own research into various aspects of the clinical features and pathophysiology of metabolic bone disease.

These authoritative volumes on genetic inheritance, by some of the biggest names in the field, survey all aspects of genetic disease, including metabolic disorders. Disorders of protein metabolism eg, amino acidopathies, organic acidopathies, urea cycle defects ; disorders of carbohydrate intolerance; lysosomal storage disorders.

These reactions are important steps in metabolic pathways that are responsible for processes such as utilization of nutrients, generation of energy, cell division, and biosynthesis of substances that are needed by organisms.

Pure muscle disease with exercise intolerance, myalgia, cramps, and weakness is reported in some other patients. These are only a very few of the hundreds of known inborn errors of metabolism. A variety of other biochemical tests, such as uric acid, cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, lipid profiles, and liver function tests, should be performed, as well as bone studies in specific instances.

They are responsible for increasing the rates of reactions that occur in all cells. Diagnosis and Treatment Significant progress has been made in the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism.

This allows diagnosis to be made prenatally. The molecular heterogeneity of the glycogenoses frequently results in a clinical heterogeneity. About one in twenty Caucasians in the United States is a carrier for the cystic fibrosis gene, and about one in thirty individuals of Eastern Jewish descent carries the gene for the lethal Tay-Sachs disease.Inborn Errors of Metabolism infancy, not with a specific laboratory abnormality, but with organomegaly, facial coarseness and neurodegeneration and show a progressively degenerative course.

Examples of inborn errors of metabolism include albinism, cystinuria (a cause of kidney stones), phenylketonuria (PKU), and some forms of gout, sun sensitivity, and thyroid disease.

These are only a very few of the hundreds of known inborn errors of metabolism. Inborn errors of metabolism has related to defects in or damage to a developing foetus that may have been caused to genetic changes, that is why Inborn errors of metabolism is sometimes referred as congenital metabolic diseases.

Inborn errors of metabolism are rare genetic (inherited) disorders in which the body cannot properly turn food into energy. The disorders are usually caused by defects in specific proteins (enzymes) that help break down (metabolize) parts of food. Fatih Ezgu, in Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Abstract.

Inborn errors of metabolism are single gene disorders resulting from the defects in the biochemical pathways of the body.

Although these disorders are individually rare, collectively they account for a. Inborn errors of metabolism are hereditary genetic defects found in varying frequencies in human populations. Diagnosis and cure of these genetic diseases is a continuing focus of medical research.

Essay on inborn errors of metabolism
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