Social psychology is about understanding individual behavior in a social context. If she labels and categorizes the interaction as a romantic interlude between lovers, she is less likely to interrupt than if the interaction is labeled and categorized as a conversation between co workers.
Equally important, Berger and Luckmann also clearly demonstrated how everyday interactions and language create seemingly formidable social institutions and organizations. For example, group polarization, formerly known as the "risky shift," occurs when people polarize their views in a more extreme direction after group discussion.
Molm and her colleagues examined how exchanges varied based on inequality of participants and the availability of other sources and actors. As the above discussion indicates, the three theoretical approaches in social psychology all examine different aspects of individuals, their interactions, and how their interactions affect groups.
Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. The physiological approach in the cognitive and intrapersonal perspective is not normally included in discussions about social psychology, as at first glance its theoretical focus does not directly relate to social interactions.
Robert Sternberg has suggested that there are actually three components of love: However, several factors have combined to put social psychology at the center of the current controversy.
Experimental methods involve the researcher altering a variable in the environment and measuring the effect on another variable. Social identity theory — was developed by Henri Tajfel and examines how categorizing people including oneself into ingroups or outgroups affects perceptions, attitudes, and behavior.
Temporary groups and aggregates share few or none of these features, and do not qualify as true social groups. Drive theory — posits that the presence of an audience causes arousal which creates dominant or typical responses in the context of the situation.
However, recent developments in this approach link it much more closely with the cognitive approach, thereby warranting its inclusion in this discussion.
Key studies were carried out in several areas. Such practices, while not necessarily intentionally fraudulent, involve converting undesired statistical outcomes into desired outcomes via the manipulation of statistical analyses, sample size or data management, typically to convert non-significant findings into significant ones.
One of the most important factors in interpersonal attraction is how similar two particular people are. Social influence is also closely related to the study of group dynamics, as most principles of influence are strongest when they take place in social groups.
Each set of studies focuses on different aspects of describing and explaining the underlying structure of social interactions. To protect the rights and well-being of research participants, and at the same time discover meaningful results and insights into human behavior, virtually all social psychology research must pass an ethical review process.
A number of group biases, however, can interfere with effective decision making. A valid experiment is controlled and uses random assignment. This approach is related to cognitive and intrapersonal social psychology in the focus on developing formal theories to explain interactions and creating specific hypotheses for testing in experimental situations.
These predictions then determine which individuals are likely to be given the most opportunities for interaction and influence in a group.
Status characteristics, expectation states, and social network studies examine how social interactions are based on socially and culturally derived expectations for behavior that people have of one another.
The life course approach in symbolic interactionism focuses on how humans learn the meanings associated with interactions through out their lifetime and the stages that reflect such learning processes. Social facilitation, for example, is a tendency to work harder and faster in the presence of others.
Blau further specified this work by focusing on the social aspects of such exchanges in terms of how they rely on trust between actors that each person will fulfill his or her unspecified obligations.
Terror management theory — suggests that human mortality causes existential dread and terror, and that much of human behavior exists as a buffer against this dread e. Furthermore, a process of informed consent is often used to make sure that volunteers know what will happen in the experiment[ clarification needed ] and understand that they are allowed to quit the experiment at any time.Rather than seeking global theories of human behavior, as are frequently found in personality theory, social psychology utilizes a wide range of specific theories for various kinds of social and cognitive phenomena.
Here is a sampling of some of the more influential theories that can be found in this branch of psychology.
Attribution theory –. Personality psychology looks at the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique. Some of the best known theories in psychology are devoted to the subject of personality including the trait theory of personality, the "big 5" theory of personality, and Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.
Social workers should familiarize themselves with five different psychological theories that play a role in social work practice.
5 Social Work Theories That Inform Practice. Published. 2 years ago. on. /01/ By. Social workers can use social learning theory to discern the person a client might be using as a behavioral model and.
Theories vary in the extent to which they have been conceptually developed and empirically tested; however, “testability” is an important feature of a theory. As Stephen Turner has noted in his chapter on “Theory Development,” social science theories are better understood as models that work in a limited range of settings, rather than.
Social psychology is to do with the way these feelings, thoughts, beliefs, intentions and goals are constructed and how such psychological factors, in turn, influence our interactions with ultimedescente.com: Saul Mcleod.
Social psychology is concerned with the way these feelings, thoughts, beliefs, intentions, and goals are cognitively constructed and how these mental representations, in turn, influence our interactions with others.
Social psychology traditionally bridged the gap between psychology and sociology.Download